Gloriously Wacky English–Part 2: Grammar 1: Inflection

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Gloriously Wacky English: Part 2–Grammar 1: Inflection

A while back, we surveyed some of the reasons English has such a large and varied vocabulary, and why its spelling is nothing if not irregular.

Today, let’s take a quick look at some of the peculiarities of something sometimes not well studied in our “Grammar” Schools and High Schools: Grammar.

What is Grammar?

Grammar is one of the components of natural, human language. Others include spelling and punctuation, although punctuation can also be considered part of Grammar. Grammar itself is the set of structural rules that govern how words are arranged and formed into phrases, clauses, and sentences.

In English, we derive meaning using two primary structures: fusion (inflection) and analysis (position indicating the role of the word in its sentence. English is less fusional than most Indo-European languages (especially those like Latin, Greek, Russian, and German, among many others, who use prefixes, suffixes and infixes to convey the role of many types of words.

For example, the noun “human being” in Latin is listed in the dictionary as Homo. Depending on its role in the sentence, its form will change. These changes are called cases, and the list falls into five basic patterns, called declensions:

Singular, Plural

  • Subject (Nominative): homo, homines the human(s)
  • Possessive (Genitive): hominis, hominum of the human(s)
  • Indirect Object (Dative): homini, hominibus to the human(s)
  • Direct Object (Accusative): hominem, homines the human(s)
  • Adverbial (Ablative): homine, hominibus by/from the human(s)
  • Direct Address (Vocative): homo, homines O Human(s)

The Genitive, Dative, Accusative and Ablative Cases are also used as objects of prepositions, and some verbs take other direct objects than the Accusative.

Incidentally, the Proto-Indo-European root from which homo comes is *dʰǵʰm̥mō, a derivative of *dʰéǵʰōm, that is, “earth.” Homines are “Earthlings,” in the language of Science Fiction.

In Latin, Adjectives and Pronouns follow similar patterns of change, while Verbs are quite different, as would be expected.

A quick example from Greek will illustrate the role of prefixes, suffixes and infixes in the formation of verbs:

Λύω  “to loose” has the typical Classical Greek 6 principal parts:

We can see all three types of change operative. From these six forms, all the rest of the verb forms can be built, over 200 for most verbs! Some reasons for so many forms is because Classical Greek has more moods than we do, and also a dual number (together with singular and plural).

Inflection in English

We don’t think about it much, but English does have some remaining inflections. That is why we are (partly) a fusional language. For example, in nouns we have some inflection:

Singular, Plural

  • Subject/Object: human, humans
  • Possessive: human’s, humans’

In Personal Pronouns, more cases have survived. The declension of “I” yields the following:

Singular, Plural

  • Subject: I, we
  • Object: me, us
  • Reflexive*: myself, ourselves
  • Possessive: mine, ours
  • Possessive Determiner: my, our

*While the Reflexive is not precisely a grammatical case, it is an inflected form.

Verbs also have conjugations in English, and these show the Germanic ancestry of our language. We have two ways we vary verbs, called “strong” and “weak” by analogy with German.

The “weak” verbs in English are those that form the past and the past participle by adding “-ed” at the end of the verb:

Bare Infinitive, Past, Past Participle

  • Look, looked, looked
  • Like, liked, liked

“Strong” verbs have internal or other changes:

  • See, saw, seen
  • Do, did, done
  • Take, took, taken

The bare infinitive is the infinitive without “to.” It is used in some situations: we say “I can see,”  but “I like to see.” Both are infinitives.

There are also suppletive verbs, which I like to call sandwich verbs. This is a linguistic phenomenon in which two or more verb roots are blended together to form a complete conjugation. English has two: “to be” and “to go.” As an example, “to go” has these three principal parts:

Go, went, gone

Clearly, “went” is not cognate with go, gone. Go (gone) is from the Proto-Indo-European *ǵʰēh₁-

For the past tense, Old English used another verb, ēode “he went.” By the 15th century, another verb, wenden, had become synonymous with “go.” Its past tense “went” replaced ēode in the conjugation of “to go.” We also have wend and wended from wenden, perhaps not as common today as previously: I wended my way home. She wends her way home.

There is more, but that’s enough for today! Wacky English is a big subject!

— Steven A. Armstrong
Tutor, Editor, Consultant

An update on the Late Latin, “Cattus/Gattus.”

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An update on the Late Latin, “Cattus/Gattus.” 

As you may recall, I mentioned that Martial (Marcus Valerius Martialis–March 1, 40 CE-ca. 102/104 CE), the original Insult Comic, according to Wikipedia (and I think it’s a good call), is credited with the first use of a form of the word “cattus” around 75 CE. I finally tracked it down. It is from his Epigram 13.69, and also, surprisingly, from the Jerome & Company Vulgate translation of the Septuagint (Greek version of the Hebrew Scriptures completed under Ptolemy II in Alexandria) text of Baruch 6:21 (in Catholic Bibles). Chapter 6 is known as the Letter of Jeremiah in Orthodox Christian Bibles and is printed separately. There is no surviving manuscript evidence that either has a Hebrew antecedent; however, some scholars theorize that the differences between the Greek Septuagint and the Hebrew Masoretic Text stem from the use of different Hebrew source-texts. Some passages from the Dead Sea Scrolls seem to indicate that there were variant Hebrew texts in existence.

Cattus in Martial

Martial’s Epigram 13.69 reads as follows:


Pannonicas nobis numquam dedit Vmbria cattas:
mavult haec domino mittere dona Pudens.

Umbria has never supplied us with Pannonian [Cattae]:
these are the gifts Pudens prefers to send to his lord.

Apparently Martial was ticked off that his friend the Centurion Aulus Pudens (from Umbria) never sent him any Pannonian Cattae, but rather sent these directly to the Emperor.

(In some manuscripts, cattae and cattas are transmitted as caltae and caltas.)

Now “here’s the rub.” No classical scholar knows what catta was in 75 CE! There are theories that it is an unknown species of bird. The fundamental Latin Dictionary by Lewis and Short defines it as that. In 1931 John Phelps argued for that theory based on his reading of the 4th Century Latin Vulgate’s translation of Baruch 6:21.

Cattus in Baruch

Let’s look at the Latin Vulgate (=people’s) translation from the late 4th Century CE. The Greek of the Septuagint, followed by the Latin, and then English is

ἐπὶ τὸ σῶμα αὐτῶν καὶ ἐπὶ τὴν κεφαλὴν αὐτῶν ἐφίπτανται νυκτερίδες, χελιδόνες καὶ τὰ ὄρνεα, ὡσαύτως δὲ καὶ οἱ αἴλουροι.

Supra corpus eorum et supra caput eorum volant noctuæ, et hirundines, et aves etiam similiter et cattæ.

Owls, and swallows, and other birds fly upon their bodies, and upon their heads, and cats in like manner.

The only problem with Phelps’ theory is that the Greek αἴλουροι really means “Domestic Cats.” There was even a Non-Chalcedonian Pope of Alexandria in the 5th century known as Timothy Aelurus (Αἴλουρος), Timothy the Cat.

In the absence of an original Hebrew text to compare the Septuagint version with, we are hard pressed to come to any other conclusion. Cattus/Catta seems to mean “cat.”

If anyone out there knows if Pannonia was known for its cats, please comment!

Steven A. Armstrong
Tutor, Editor, Consultant

Dog Language…Some Quick Thoughts

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Dog Language…Some Quick Thoughts

Of course, my boss Angus had several things to say about my most recent post!

This is fodder for several more posts, and I really encourage readers to let us know their experiences.

Dog Speak

Researchers have cataloged the fairly large number of different kinds of Dog Barks. We’ll take another post to talk about how human world languages represent these barks. Right now, I am interested in the dog side.

Dog Barks

The major types of Barks are

Warning Bark

Alarm Bark

Barking on Command

Playful Bark

Need Bark

I can testify that Angus has several variants on this repertoire. My boyhood Ridgeback Rex Dino Armstrong had a very specific, staccato, “Scorpion in the House” Bark. He was fearless! He was a great dog for a kid to walk around the neighborhood with. He was gentle (praus in Greek…we’ll have a whole post on that adjective one of these days), but who’s going to mess with a boy or girl walking with her/his Rhodesian Ridgeback West African Lion Hound‽ (Do you recognize that punctuation mark? A Free first Latin lesson for the first five who identify it!)

Please, let us all know what kinds of Barks your dog has! If you have another animal companion, let us know what she/he sounds like!

We can then compile this into a Post. I’m not sure that dogs have gerunds, phrasal verbs, predicate compliments, etc. Someday we’ll know.

What We Say: What Dogs Hear!

Gary Larson highlighted this phenomenon in his famous Far Side Comic:


© Gary Larson. Used for commentary purposes only.

You know, we find that Angus has a wider vocabulary. He certainly knows his name, but he also knows “Park” (we live next to Golden Gate Park, which he considers “Angus-Land”), “Let’s Go!” “Treat,” “Biscuit,” and even “Bath” (which he doesn’t like), and a few more. His ears go up, and he responds appropriately to these stimuli. I don’t know if he is reading our minds, or listening to our intonation, or what, but it is pretty consistent.

I would love to have our readers compile the human terms that your animal companions respond to. I mean, if plants can respond to harsh or pleasant talk, shouldn’t animals? My correspondents such as Rev. Martha Del Rio in Sacramento always remind me: animals are perfect in themselves, and have everything they need to be fulfilled. Please comment.


Angus on his Throne Pillows!

That’s all for tonight, but please contribute, here and on our sites. As I was writing this, Angus came up for a chin rub. He knew I was writing about him!

Peace to all!

Steven Armstrong
Tutor, Editor, Consultant

Cats and Dogs

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Cats and Dogs: Our Ancient Friends

In response to my last entry, one of my Yale ’76 classmates, Stephanie Wald, posed a very interesting question: what is the relationship, if any between Cat, Late Latin Gattulus, and the Hebrew Khatool (חתול). Thank you Stephanie for this great question.

Of course, although I like cats a lot, I have always been a dog person. Happily today, I am owned by a wonderful Skye Terrier, Angus (see photo below). In the past, I’ve been a human of a Cocker Spaniel and a Rhodesian Ridgeback. I say this because, when Angus and I go out for a walk, I carry little bags to pick up after him, not he for me. So who’s in charge? LOL. I think that when extra-terrestrials visit, they will call this the Canine-Human planet. Therefore I broadened my inquiry into Dogs as well as Cats.

To present my cat credentials, I must tell you about my experience of tutoring a 2011 USF grad who needed to learn Latin for a European Mediaeval graduate program she wanted to enter. Each time we met, one of their two cats came right up and sat right on the page of Wheelock that we were studying. The only way to dissuade her was for me to cuddle her and purr, while we were doing declensions, conjugations, and the like. Happily we did well and my student got into the prestigious program she wanted to. I miss that cat!

So here are the results of my research. I am far from a Hebrew scholar, and Stephanie is a life-long linguist, so this is just fun for me, learning new things.

Cats Across Language Groups


Cat Coffin from the Rosicrucian Egyptian Museum, San Jose, CA. Photo (c) 2012 Rosicrucian Egyptian Museum

As many may know it is difficult to connect words across language groups, and one would need to find a “smoking gun” for borrowing or assimilation. His rebus dictis (these things having been said), Cattus (Gattus) / Catta (Gatta) is first attested in the 4th Century CE in Latin.The conflation of C and G in Latin is perfectly natural. In Archaic Latin, the letter “C” (the western version of the Greek gamma Γ, γ) represented the sound of both hard C (cat) and hard G (Caius = Gaius). By the 3rd Century BCE, a new letter “G,” clearly a C with a horizontal stroke on the lower lip replaces the Latin Z, which is not needed for native Latin words. The original alphabet was ABCDEFZH… Now it was ABCDEFGH… Later, Y and Z (the Greek Upsilon Υ,υ and Zeta Ζ, ζ would be added back in at the end of the alphabet to use with words imported from Greek. Still today, Y is i-griega in Spanish and i-grec in French = Greek i… humans have long memories!). Latin, especially in the people’s Latin, Vulgar Latin (no nastiness intended, vulgus = popular), C and G often interchanged. The Latin suffix -ulus is a diminutive, and so Cattulus would roughly be “kitty.”

Cattus vs Feles

But where does this Cattus come from? The cultured, upper-class Latin for cat is “feles.” Pretty different! At first glance it appears to be a borrow word from the Afro-Asiatic family of languages (including Late Egyptian čaute): Semitic languages are part of this language family. The Hebrew words are: a male cat = khatool (חתול); a female cat = khatoolah (חתולה). Seeחתול.

As for names of Cats in Ancient Egypt, they usually kept those to themselves (names have power), and were just called, Ta-Mieuw, or “The Meower.”

Since the Romans and the Jewish community had many points of contact, including Jerusalem, Alexandria and Rome, prosopograpy would tell us that there is certainly the opportunity for cross over, so that by the 4th Century, the classical Feles (cat) is supplemented by Cattus/Gattus.

Some assert that Martial used cattus in his epigrams, but I have not been able to find the passage yet. And I wonder if the Roman cognomen Catullus / Catulus is related to cattus? Whether or not this borrowing came through Hebrew, Egyptian or in some other way, I do not know. After all, Egypt is certainly the land of cats!

Now all this would be fine; however we have to also take account of the (Proto-)Indo-European roots for “cat.” It turns out there are two: *bʰel- (wildcat) and katta (cat). Feles (classical) is descended from the first, while cattus/gattus (Late Latin, and Vulgar Latin –> Medieval Latin: is arguably cognate with the second.

With such similar sounding roots for cat in the Indo-European family and the Afro-Asiatic family of languages, it is tempting to suggest that the root for cat is evidence for the theoretical Proto-Human language from our species’ origins in Africa, This is far deeper than I can go, however; nevertheless, it appears that cats have been with us for a very long time.

Our English words come from both roots. As we have seen, English (as well as several other IE languages) does not so much choose between one or the other…why not use both?

Cat is clearly from the ancestor of the PIE root katta and similar Afro-Asiatic root, possibly from African Proto-Human. Our more fancy word, feline, is from the PIE *bʰel via Latin. French has chat and félin, Spanish has gatto and felino.

So to answer Stephanie’s question, it certainly looks like all of these Cat terms are related, and arguably go back a VERY long time. After all, we are all “Out of Africa,” the Mother Continent of modern humanity (at least as far as we can tell now).



Angus, the One Who Must Be Obeyed!

The history of our words for dogs is a bit different, but exhibits some similarities. As they say in Southeast Asia: “Same, same, but Different!”

In English, not surprisingly, we have at least several Dog words: Dog, Canine, Hound. Let’s look at these.

Dog comes from our Germanic language heritage, as Wiktionary says:

Middle English dogge, from Old English docga (“hound, powerful breed of dog”), a pet-form diminutive of Old English -docce (“muscle”). More at dock. In the 16th century, it superseded Old English hund and was adopted by many continental European languages.”

My dog-master Angus would certainly like that…Muscular Breed of Hound!

Then there’s the English/French/Italian Canine, from the Latin Canis, ultimately from Proto-Indo-European ḱwṓ. Cognates include Ancient Greek κύων (kuōn), and Sanskrit श्वन् (śván).

We also have Hound, cognate with the German Hund. This is from the Old English hund. Hound has this suggested etymology:

Proto-Germanic *hundaz, from Proto-Indo-European *ḱʷn̥tós, derived from Proto-Indo-European *ḱʷōn (“dog”).  The K sound morphs into the H sound. In many languages, including English, K is sometimes aspirated (a voiceless plositive for those who are following along in their linguistics textbooks), especially when it starts the word, or the stressed syllable. For example, say the name of Barbie’s friend “Ken,” which we actually pronounce as Khen. To simplify it, there is an expulsion of air after the K sound here, and there is not when it is in an unstressed syllable, say for example, “chicken.” We don’t say chi-khen, just chi-ken. (Be patient, the IPA will be introduced in a few weeks. It makes everything much clearer!)

So Canine and Hound actually come from the same PIE root! As Mr. Burns would say, “Release the *ḱwónn̥s (PIE accusative plural of hound)!” I’m pretty sure he is old enough that he spoke PIE before matriculating at Yale. At least I suspect Bart and Homer think so…!

But where did the Spanish perro come from? It may surprise Spanish speakers, but the original Spanish word for dog is Can obviously from the Latin Canis. Nobody actually has figured out where perro comes from. One speculation is that it might be an originally pejorative word associated with how one calls dogs. We can compare this with the Galician apurrar (“set the dogs on”).

Now let’s turn to our neighboring language group, the Afro-Asiatic, with which our languages have had so much interaction over the millennia. Dog is a little different:

Proto-Afro-Asiatic: *kar-/*kayar-
Meaning: dog

Semitic: *wakar- ‘fox’

Western Chadic: *kyara-

Central Chadic: *kur-/*kir-

Saho-Afar: *kar- ‘dog’

Low East Cushitic: *kayir- ‘dog’

Warazi (Dullay): *kaHar- ‘dog’

South Cushitic: *ta-kur- ‘bat-eared fox’ 1, ‘wild dog’ 2

Dogs in Ancient Egypt were called  iwiw (probably from their bark, and had some wonderful names: Brave One, Reliable, Good Herdsman, North-Wind, Antelope, Useless (!), Blacky, the Fifth.

Some of the Afro-Asiatic roots seem to be at least a bit similar to the PIE *ḱʷōn, but I am not expert enough to compare them. Perhaps someone can comment on these roots.

In Egypt, there is evidence of domesticated dogs approximately 6,000 years ago, as too with cats. The evidence for worldwide domestication of dogs goes back a lot further. The latest evidence suggests that dogs and wolves split about 100,000 years ago, and the earliest evidence of domesticated dogs is about 30,000 years old. Unfortunately, there is no evidence that those dogs survived the Last Glacial Maximum, and our dogs today seem to be descended from the ones who domesticated us (LOL) about 15,000 years ago.

To speculate, I would not be at all surprised to learn (from the Extra-Terrestrials who have been watching our planet since it coalesced) that about 2.3-2.4 million years ago, when Homo Habilis first differentiated itself from the australopithecines, the proto-dogs took one look and said, “This is very promising. We’re gonna work with these new guys, and make sure they succeed. We’ll get them to feed us and clean up after us! What a deal!” Cats, on the other hand, waited to see how the Dog experiment worked out. The genetic evidence suggests that all our house cats come from five African Wildcats from 8000 BCE. They must have been the brave five who decided the Dogs had succeeded, and then they got worshipped in Egypt. What a deal!

(I know this is all so anthropomorphic, but when the  Alpha-Centaurans (or Stargate’s Asgard) tell us the real history of our planet, I suspect animal intelligence is going to play a huge part!)

So cats and dogs have been with us a long time. We are lucky!

For future work, think of all the words about them we haven’t explored: kittens, puppies, Arf, Bark, Meeow, etc.! There’s always more to discover.

Go hug your pet!


Steven ArmstrongTutor, Editor, Consultant

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— Steven A. Armstrong
Tutor, Editor, Consultant

Welcome to Language Services by Steven A. Armstrong!

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